Rules

2016/2017 WORLD ARMWRESTLING LEAGUE RULES
The following apply to both men and women’s competitors.
 
ELIGIBILITY

Age

Competitors must be at least 18 years old to compete at WAL events.

 

Nationality

WAL events are open only to citizens of the following countries:

 

Proof of residency/citizenship

Residents from each eligible country must provide proof of residence at the start of a competition in the following forms:

 

 

 

Exceptions

WAL reserves the right to make both exceptions and exclusions to the above Eligibility requirements as it sees fit in cases where circumstances dictate, including for “grandfathered” competitors from outside the list of approved countries.
 

If you show up at a WAL event and do not meet the above criteria, you will not be allowed to compete. If you have questions, please write to us at info@walunderground.com.
 

2016 / 2017 ADVANCEMENT CRITERIA

Please see the guidelines at this page: http://www.walunderground.com/news/news-details/wal-2017-updates

 

As a rule, WAL reserves the right to correct any common sense deviation that results from the combination of the dual-advancement system that uses Rankings and Tournament Placement. If that system creates a clear problem or omission, WAL reserves the right to correct it at whatever level it sees fit.
 

AMATEURS

Amateurs go by the same rules and weight classes, but have separate progression criteria than Pros – please see guidelines at:

 

http://www.walunderground.com/news/news-details/wal-2017-updates

 

Amateur Championships

Any amateur who placed Top 2 his/her class at the 2016 Championships is no longer eligible to compete in Amateur events, and must progress to the open/pro class in the following year.
 

 COMPETITION
 
Weights and Weigh-Ins
1. Competitors can only weigh-in during posted times.
2. There is NO clothing allowance
3. There is no weight allowance for pregnancy
4. A competitor can not change to a lower weight class on the day of a Major or Championship competition, even if they make the weight for a lower class.
5. If a competitor does not make weight of their intended class, they can join the next class up, but can never go down.
6. Without prejudice, any competitor with an artificial limb must weigh in with the limb on.
7. Any individual(s) attempting to alter weight by not following proper weigh-in procedure will be disqualified from the event. 
8. Only competitors are allowed into the official weigh-in area – no spouses friends or significant others of any kind.
 
Competition - General

1. Competitors have 60 seconds to report to the table when called or will forfeit that match.
2. Nothing shall be worn on either arm on the hand, wrist or arm on the elbow or below during competition, nor any substance applied to the hand or wrist, except chalk. Any violation can be grounds for disqualification.
2a. In the event of a bleeding injury, a competitor MUST stop the bleeding to the referee’s satisfaction.  Use of a Band-Aid or a piece of tape the size of a Band-Aid on the wound is allowed.
3. Any competitor exhibiting impairment due to alcohol, drugs or otherwise, may be disqualified from competition.
 
 The Grip
1. Competitors must keep one foot in contact with the floor at all times.
2. Competitors must keep non-pulling hand in contact with the peg.
3. Competitors must follow all commands of the referee during the set.
4. Competitors must set their competing elbow on the elbow pad, square their shoulders, and present an open hand.
5. The angle of the competing arm must result in the fingers pointing at their opponent.
6. The referee will center the hands on the table. The webbing between the thumb and index finger of the hand of each competitor will be level, close and tightly set.
7. Competitors’ hands must be palm-to-palm, flat together and with no separation, to the satisfaction of the referee.
8. The referee will hold the competitor’s fingers while he gives the command “Close your thumbs.”
9. The referee will command the competitors to “Close your hands”
10. Competitor’s must keep their wrist straight when closing their thumbs and hands.
11. The referee will give the command ”GO” to start the match.
 
SLIP – When the hands separate completely during the match
1. ALL slips will result in a restart in the STRAP.
 
FOULS
A competitor receiving any 3 fouls will result in a LOSS OF A MATCH
 
All of the below result in a foul:
1. When closing your hand, you cover your opponent’s thumb knuckle.
2. After the command “Close your hands” and prior to “GO,” any movement of the hand/wrist/arm, including a False Start.
3. Touching any part of their body such as chin, shoulder or head to the competing hands.
4. The tip of elbow losing contact with the top of elbow pad at any time during the match.
5. If one foot is not in contact with the floor during the match.
6. If a competitor attempts to delay a match by not staying at the table.
7. Poor sportsmanship may result in a foul. If the conduct continues it can result in removal from the event and/or forfeit of any placements and awards.
8. Losing contact with the peg with non-competing hand.
9. Intentionally moving your opponent off center after “Close your Hands” – example: Back Pressure.
10. Competitors cannot drop the competing shoulder below the level of the elbow pad when in a
neutral or losing position.
11. A slip in a losing position will be deemed a FOUL.
Stipulations:
The referee will enforce the above rules to ensure the most fair and sporting match.
Any simultaneous fouls by both competitors will result in Stop/Restart with NO fouls.
 
WARNINGS – THERE ARE NO WARNINGS.  (i.e. for false starts or any of the above fouls)
 

PIN
1. Competitors must touch to the pin pad any portion of the wrist to fingertips of their
     opponent for a win.
2. A parallel pin will occur when any portion of their opponent's wrist to fingertips breaks
    the pin line
 
FINALS
1. Best-out-of-three matches with up to a 60-second rest between pulls. 
2. The competitors have 60 seconds to negotiate a grip, then the “Set grip” will be used.
 
RUNNING FOUL SYSTEM

 
IMPORTANT: NEVER STOP ARM WRESTLING UNTIL A REFEREE STOPS THE MATCH
1. Fouls will be announced during the match, but DO NOT STOP ARM WRESTLING. 
2. If competitor “A” commits a foul then competitor “A” pins their opponent it will result in a stop/restart with the foul rolling over to the next pull.
3. If competitor “A” commits a foul then competitor “A” commits another foul, they continue to accumulate until 3 fouls/loss.
4. If competitor “A” commits a foul then competitor “B” commits a foul the match stops/restarts and only competitor “A’s” foul rolls to the next pull.
5. If competitor “A” commits a foul then competitor “B” pins their opponent it will result in a Win for “B.”
6.  Once any foul is called, that competitor must correct the foul immediately or they will continue to accrue fouls.
 
 WORLD ARMWRESTLING LEAGUE
ANTI-DOPING PROGRAM
1. Introduction
The World Armwrestling League ("WAL") has developed this Anti-Doping Program (the "Program") to protect the integrity that is inherent in the sport of armwrestling and to ensure the health and safety of all WAL Competitors ("Competitors").  The use of performance enhancing substances is contrary to the spirit of fair competition that has always been a valued tradition in armwrestling.  The WAL is committed to educating Competitors on the dangers associated with performance enhancing substances.  The Program will be administered by the office of the WAL Commissioner, with the assistance of external legal, medical, and scientific experts.
2. Program Application
By virtue of competing in any WAL event, and signing a WAL contract, all Competitors agree to comply with and be bound by the terms of the Program.
All Competitors shall be prohibited from using, possessing, selling, facilitating the sale of, distributing or facilitating the distribution of any Performance Enhancing Substance ("Prohibited Substances")
3. Performance Enhancing Substances
Any and all anabolic androgenic steroids covered by Schedule III of the Code of Federal Regulations’ Schedule of Controlled Substances (“Schedule III”), as amended from time to time, and the categories of hormones and agents with antiestrogenic activity that are set forth in Nos.67 - 74 below, shall be considered Performance Enhancing Substances ("Prohibited Substances") covered by the Program. Anabolic androgenic steroids, hormones, and agents with antiestrogenic activity, that may not be lawfully obtained or used in the United States (including, for example, “designer steroids” and peptide hormones) also shall be considered Prohibited Substances irrespective of whether they are covered by Schedule III. The following is a non-exhaustive list of substances that shall be considered Prohibited Substances covered by the

Program:
1.         Androstadienedione
2.         Androstanediol
3.         Androstanedione
4.         Androstatrienedione (ATD)
5.         Androstenediol
6.         Androstenedione
7.         Androst-2-en-17-one (2-Androstenone, Delta-2)
8.         Androstenetrione (6-OXO)
9.         Bolandiol
10.       Bolasterone
11.       Boldenone
12.       Boldione
13.       Calusterone
14.       Clenbuterol
15.       Clostebol
16.       Danazol
17.       Dehydrochloromethyltestosterone
18.       Desoxy-methyltestosterone
19.       1-dihydrotestosterone
20.       4-dihydrotestosterone
21.       Drostanolone
22.       Epi-dihydrotestosterone
23.       Epitestosterone
24.       Ethylestrenol
25.       Fluoxymesterone
26.       Formebolone
27.       Furazabol
28.       13a-ethyl-17a-hydroxygon-4-en-3-one
29.       Gestrinone
30.       4-hydroxytestosterone
31.       4-hydroxy-19-nortestosterone
32.       Mestanolone
33.       Mesterolone
34.       Methandienone
35.       Methandriol
36.       Methasterone (Superdrol)
37.       Methenolone
38.       Methyldienolone
39.       Methylnortestosterone
40.       Methylstenbolone (Ultradrol, M-Sten)
41.       Methyltestosterone
42.       Methyltrienolone (Metribolone)
43.       Mibolerone
44.       17a-methyl-Δ1-dihydrotestosterone
45.       Nandrolone
46.       Norandrostenediol
47.       Norandrostenedione
48.       Norbolethone
49.       Norclostebol
50.       Norethandrolone
51.       Oxabolone
52.       Oxandrolone
53.       Oxymesterone
54.       Oxymetholone
55.       Prostanozol
56.       Quinbolone
57.       Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs)
58.       Stanozolol
59.       Stenbolone
60.       Testosterone
61.       Tetrahydrogestrinone
62.       Tibolone
63.       Trenbolone
64.       Zeranol
65.       Zilpaterol
66.       Any salt, ester or ether of a drug or substance listed above
67.       Human Growth Hormone (hGH), Secretagogues and Peptides, including Ibutamoren, Growth Hormone Releasing Peptides (GHRP), Hexarelin, Ipamorelin,Alexamorelin, and CJC-1295
 68.       Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1), including all isomers of IGF-1 sometimes referred to as Mechano Growth Factors
69.       Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
70.       Aromatase Inhibitors, including Anastrozole, Letrozole, Aminoglutethimide, Exemestane, Formestane, and Testolactone
71.       Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators, including Raloxifen, Tamoxifen, and Toremifen
72.       Other Anti-estrogens, including Clomiphene, Cyclofenil, and Fulvestrant
73.       Metabolic Modulators, including Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor δ (PPARδ) agonists, including GW 1516, GW 0742, and AICAR
74.       Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents, including Erythropoietin (EPO)
 
4. Therapeutic Use Exceptions
1. A Competitor authorized to ingest a Prohibited Substance through a valid, medically appropriate prescription provided by a duly licensed physician shall receive a Therapeutic Use Exemption (“TUE”). To be “medically appropriate,” the Competitor must have a documented medical need under the standards accepted in the United States or Canada for the prescription in the prescribed dosage. A specimen which is found to contain a Prohibited Substance will not be deemed a positive test result if such specimen was provided by a Competitor with an effective TUE for that Prohibited Substance. A Competitor with a TUE for a Prohibited Substance does not violate the Program by possessing or using that substance.
 
Application (including all requested medical information) for a TUE shall be made at least thirty (30) days prior to participation in a officially sanctioned WAL event for which the TUE is sought. The application will be considered by the WAL Commissioner in consultation with WAL's medical advisor (a medical doctor retained by WAL) and additional specialists (as appropriate) designated by the WAL's medical advisor.
 
TUE applications submitted less than thirty (30) days prior to an event (retroactive TUE applications) may be submitted in emergency circumstances.
 
A Competitor whose TUE application is denied by the WAL Commissioner may appeal the denial by submitting a written appeal to the Commissioner’s Office within fourteen (14) days of the date of notification of the denial. In considering the appeal, the Commissioner may consult with the WAL medical advisor and additional medical or scientific advisors of his choosing, and may require the Competitor to submit additional information. Within fourteen (14) days of receiving the TUE appeal, the Commissioner or his designee will advise the Competitor of his decision either confirming the denial of the TUE or granting the TUE.  The Commissioner's decision following a TUE appeal shall be final.
 
Prior to a TUE being granted, a Competitor who uses a substance on the Prohibited Substances list set forth herein, does so at his or her own risk of a TUE denial, potentially resulting in a violation under the Program.
 
5. Reasonable Cause Testing
In the event that the WAL has information that gives it reasonable cause to believe that a Competitor has engaged in the use, possession, sale or distribution of a Prohibited Substance during competition in a WAL event or events, the WAL Commissioner shall provide the Competitor, either orally or in writing, with a description of its information (“Reasonable Cause Notification”), and the Competitor will be subject to an immediate urine collection, or such other program of testing, as determined by the Commissioner after consultation with the WAL's medical advisor, to commence no later than 48 hours after the Reasonable Cause Notification was provided.
 
Notwithstanding the foregoing, if a Competitor receiving Reasonable Cause Notification disputes the existence of reasonable cause, that Competitor shall have the right to commence a proceeding within 48 hours after receipt of the Reasonable Cause Notification before the a Panel designated by the WAL consisting of the WAL's medical advisor and two other anti-doping specialists (the "Panel").  The Panel will determine by majority vote whether reasonable cause exists to subject the Competitor to testing. No reasonable cause testing of the Competitor will occur until the completion of the proceeding before the Panel. The proceeding before the Panel may be conducted by conference call, at the request of either WAL or the Competitor, and shall be completed within 48 hours from the time the Panel starts hearing the appeal.  The Panel shall issue its decision within 24 hours of the completion of the proceeding, and if the Panel finds that reasonable cause exists, the testing or testing program shall commence within 48 hours of the Panel issuing its written decision to Competitor.  There shall be no testing if the Panel determines no reasonable cause exists.
 
6. Sample Collection and Analysis
The National Center for Drug Free Sport as authorized by WAL, may collect a urine sample from any Competitor covered by the Program as soon as possible after reasonable cause is determined to exist by the Commissioner, or by the Panel as described above. The WAL has the right to require that all Competitors provide their whereabouts to permit testing. At this time, the Program will involve only the collection of urine samples. Blood sampling may or may not be added at a later date.  Once collected, all samples become the property of the WAL.
 
For purposes of violations of the Program, samples shall be analyzed only in an accredited laboratory which will adhere to the International Standard for Laboratories, insuring chain of custody is maintained at all times.  The choice of the accredited laboratory used for sample analysis shall be determined exclusively by the WAL.
 
Samples shall be analyzed to detect Prohibited Substances on the WAL Prohibited List.  No sample may be used for any other purpose without the Competitor’s written consent.
 
Laboratories shall analyze samples and report results in conformance with International
Standard for Laboratories.
 
7. Results Management
Upon receipt of a laboratory report showing no violation under the Program, the WAL will promptly notify the Competitor of the result in writing.
 
Upon receipt of a laboratory report indicating an A sample Adverse Analytical Finding (see Definitions – Exhibit A), the WAL's medical advisor will conduct an expedited review to determine whether an applicable TUE has been granted or whether there is any apparent departure from the International Standard for Testing or International Standard for Laboratories that could reasonably have caused the Adverse Analytical Finding. If that review does not reveal an applicable TUE or departure, the WAL medical advisor shall promptly notify the Competitor of the Adverse Analytical Finding and the date on which the laboratory will conduct the B sample analysis. Analysis of the B sample may be delayed, at the WAL medical advisor’s discretion, if the Competitor promptly submits a retroactive TUE application. The Competitor may attend the B sample analysis accompanied by a representative, or may have a representative appear on his or her behalf at the Competitor’s expense. The Competitor may also waive analysis of the B sample. The Competitor must notify the WAL Commissioner within two (2) business days whether he or she will attend the “B” sample analysis. Upon receipt of the laboratory’s B sample analytical report, the WAL medical advisor shall promptly notify the Competitor of the result in writing.  If the B sample analysis confirms the A sample is an Adverse Analytical Finding, the WAL medical adviser shall provide the Competitor the applicable laboratory documentation.
 
Upon receipt of a laboratory report indicating an Atypical Finding (see Definitions – Exhibit A), the WAL medical advisor shall conduct any follow-up investigation which may be appropriate.
 
At such time as the WAL medical advisor determines that a Competitor may have committed an Prohibited Substance use rule violation, the Competitor shall be notified of the potential violation. The Competitor shall have seven (7) calendar days from such notice to provide a written explanation, including any mitigating or extenuating circumstances, to the WAL medical advisor. The Commissioner, in consultation with the WAL medical adviser, shall consider any information submitted by the Competitor and shall then decide whether to go forward with an anti-doping use rule violation against the Competitor. If the Commissioner’s decision is to go forward with an anti-doping use rule violation, the Competitor shall be notified of the sanction which will be imposed. That sanction will be imposed within seven (7) calendar days after notification to the Competitor.  The Commissioner’s decision concerning any sanction shall be final and not subject to any further challenge or appeal by a Competitor or any other third party.
 
8. Provisional Suspension
The WAL Commissioner may impose a Provisional Suspension on a Competitor at any time after the WAL has received an A sample Adverse Analytical Finding or after the Commissioner, in consultation with the WAL medical advisor has decided that an anti-doping use rule violation has been committed and has so notified the Competitor as provided in Section 7 above. A Competitor may also voluntarily accept a Provisional Suspension. All periods of Provisional Suspension, whether voluntarily accepted or imposed by the Commissioner, shall count against any period of Ineligibility (see Definitions – Exhibit A), ultimately imposed by any sanction.
 
If a Competitor is not Provisionally Suspended after notice provided in Section 7 and the Competitor chooses to continue participating in any tournaments pending the resolution of the case, then any prize money won by the Competitor may be held in escrow pending the outcome of the case.
 
9. Sanctions
A Competitor who tests positive for Prohibited Substances use will be subject to any of the Sanctions below which may include:
(1)       Disqualification, from a WAL event or events, including any prize money from the date the anti-doping use rule violation was found to occur forward.
(2)       Ineligibility to participate in WAL competition events or other WAL activities, appearances, promotions and all WAL media broadcasts and or other WAL media platforms pursuant to the following:
 
            (a)        The applicable period of Ineligibility for a first anti-doping use violation under the Program, shall be up to six (6) months Ineligibility except in cases involving Trafficking, administration, or Aggravating Circumstances, where the sanction may be up to permanent Ineligibility.
 
            (b)       The applicable period of Ineligibility for a second anti-doping use violation under the Program, shall be up to one (1) year Ineligibility except in cases involving Trafficking, administration, or Aggravating Circumstances, where the sanction may be up to permanent Ineligibility.
 
            (c)        The applicable period of Ineligibility for a third anti-doping use violation under the Program, shall be up to a permanent ban.
 
(3)       A Competitor committing an anti-doping violation under the Program may also be subject to the imposition of a fine in an amount up to $2,500.00.
 
(4)       In applying these sanctions in a particular case, the WAL Commissioner and the WAL medical advisor may use and consult the International Anti-Doping Standards for guidance.
 
The decision of the Commissioner shall be final as to the determination of any sanction or sanctions set forth above.  In rendering a decision in a particular case, the Commissioner may in his sole discretion depart from the sanction guidance in the International Anti-Doping Standard (see Definitions – Exhibit A), as he deems appropriate in a particular case.
 
10. Confidentiality and Reporting
The WAL Commissioner will not publicly disclose the identity of a Competitor whose sample has resulted in an Adverse Analytical Finding or who has been alleged to have committed an anti-doping rule use violation until after the process described in Sections 5, 6 and 7 have been completed.  In each case where a period of Ineligibility has been imposed or a Competitor has been disqualified and or event results vacated, the WAL Commissioner may, at a minimum, publish the name of the Competitor, the fact that the Competitor committed an anti-doping rule use violation, and the sanction imposed. 
 
11. Release
As a condition of membership or participation in WAL competition events and or other WAL activities, of any kind, each Competitor hereby releases the WAL, the Commissioner, WAL medical adviser, and each director, consultant, officer, member, employee, agent or representative of any of the foregoing, jointly and severally, individually and in their official capacity, of and from any and all claims, demands, damages and causes of action whatsoever, in law or equity, arising out of or in connection with any decision, act or omission arising under the Program.
 
12. No Judicial Review

As a condition of membership and the opportunity to participate in WAL competition events or other WAL activities, of any kind, each Competitor expressly waives the right to seek judicial review of any interim or final decisions, acts or omissions arising under the Program.

EXHIBIT A
DEFINITIONS
Adverse Analytical Finding:  A report from a laboratory or other Approved Laboratory that, consistent with the International Standard for Laboratories and Technical Documents, identifies in a sample the presence of a WAL Prohibited Substance or its Metabolites or Markers.
 
Atypical Finding:  A report from a laboratory or other WAL-approved entity which requires further investigation as provided by the International Standard for Laboratories or related Technical Documents prior to the determination of an Adverse Analytical Finding.
 
Ineligibility:  No Competitor who has been declared Ineligible may, during the period of Ineligibility, participate in any capacity in any event or other activity of WAL.
 
International Anti-Doping Standard:  A standard adopted by World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in support of the World Anti-Doping Code. 
 
WORLD ARMWRESTLING LEAGUE
PERSONAL CONDUCT POLICY

 
General Overview:
 

The World Armwrestling League (WAL) believes that any person competing or working in the WAL must conduct themselves in a manner which is consistent with commonly acceptable standards of decency, honesty, social conventions and morals.  The purpose of the WAL Personal Conduct Policy (hereinafter the "WAL PCP") is to identify conduct and circumstances which are detrimental to the integrity of, or public confidence in, the WAL.  Any such conduct may be subject to discipline as determined by the Commissioner of the WAL in his sole discretion.  The WAL is committed to promoting and encouraging lawful conduct by all persons associated with the WAL.
 
Persons Subject to the WAL PCP:
 
The following persons ("Covered Persons") shall be subject to the WAL PCP:
 
            (i)        all competitors who enter and compete in any officially sanctioned WAL event or  event or contest;
            (ii)       any officials working for WAL;
            (iii)      all WAL employees, consultants and advisors; and
            (iv)      all persons who have an ownership interest in WAL.
 
Prohibited conduct
It will be considered conduct detrimental for Covered Persons to engage in (or to aid, abet or conspire to engage in or to incite) violent and/or criminal activity.  Examples of such "Prohibited Conduct" include, without limitation: any crime involving the use or threat of physical violence to a person or persons; the use of a deadly weapon in the commission of a crime; possession or distribution of a weapon in violation of state or federal law; involvement in “hate crimes” or crimes of domestic violence or domestic abuse; theft, larceny or other property crimes; sex offenses; racketeering; money laundering; the possession, sale or distribution of illegal narcotics/controlled substances; obstruction of justice; resisting arrest; fraud or any violent or threatening conduct.  Additionally, Covered Persons shall not by their words or conduct suggest that criminal activity is acceptable or condoned within the WAL.
 
Imposition of Discipline
Any Covered Person arrested, charged, convicted of, or admitting to a criminal violation (including a plea to a lesser included offense; a plea of nolo contendere or no contest; or the acceptance of a diversionary program, deferred adjudication, disposition of supervision, or similar arrangement), or any Covered Person who has, or is engaged in Prohibited Conduct, will be subject to discipline as determined by the WAL Commissioner in his sole and absolute discretion.  Such discipline may include a fine, suspension from competing in WAL events, a forfeiture of prize money and/or banishment from the WAL.  Any Covered Person convicted of or admitting to a second criminal violation will be suspended or banished from the WAL for a period of time to be determined by the WAL Commissioner in his sole and absolute discretion.
 
Persons engaged in violent activity in the workplace or at any WAL Event
Every person is entitled to a safe and professional competition venue and workplace free of criminal behavior, violence and threats against personal safety.  Criminal conduct or Prohibited Conduct at any WAL competition venue or in the workplace against other persons associated with WAL is prohibited.  Any Covered Person who commits or threatens violent acts against co-workers, competitors or fans, regardless of whether an arrest is made or criminal charges are brought, shall be subject to an investigation and discipline as determined by the WAL Commissioner in his sole and absolute discretion.
 
Duty to report prohibited conduct
To ensure the effective administration of the WAL PCP, the WAL must be advised when a Covered Person engages in Prohibited Conduct.  The obligation to report Prohibited Conduct, an arrest or criminal charges extends to both the person involved and to all other Covered Persons..
 
Appeal rights
Any person disciplined under the WAL PCP shall have a right to request an appeal within seven (7) days following the imposition of discipline, including a hearing, before the WAL Commissioner or his designee.  Except for the enforcement of a suspension, no other requirements set forth in this WAL PCP will be stayed pending the completion of the appeal.  The decision of the WAL Commissioner or his designee after an appeal hearing shall be final and covered persons waive the right to seek judicial review of any such final decision.